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 Monaural Stethoscope
c 1870s
The first stethoscopes were wooden hollow tubes.   This monaural stethoscope has a removable shaft that could be carried inside a physician's top hat.  The bell at the left of the photo was placed against the chest with the broader end against the ear of the examiner.  17 cm in length.

                                                The Fetoscope
In 1818, Francois Mayor of Geneva first described fetal heart sounds in pregnant uterus, but did not recognize the clinical importance of the sound.  It was Jean de Kergaredec, a student of Rene Laennec,  in 1822 published the clinical significance of the fetal heart rate.
 A. Pinard, (c. 1880s ) a French doctor,  developed a technique of abdominal palpation and manipulation of the fetus.  Subsequently, he developed a one piece monaural fetoscope to listen to fetal heart beat on pregnant patients.   It has a broad flat ear piece and a wide flaring fetal side.  The Pinard's fetoscope was used from 1880s thru early 1900s.  The Pinard's monaural aluminum is still used in obstetrics up to the 1990s in Eastern Europe.

Artwork by Rey Evangelista

Monaural Stethoscope

19th century 2- piece ebonized wood.  Marked Young, Edinb.

Samples of Pinard Fetoscope
c 1880-1900
   A.  One piece aluminum monaural fetoscope.  14 cm.
   B.  Two piece aluminum fetoscope.  14 cm.
   C.  One piece aluminum fetoscope.  15 cm.

Other Samples Fetoscopes:
c 1880-1900
         D.  One piece wooden monaural fetoscope.  14 cm
         E.   One piece light fruitwood monaural fetoscope. 16.5 cm
         F.   Wood monaural foetal stethoscope.  14 cm.

   G.  Pinard monaural aluminum fetoscope. 12.5 cm.   Circa 1880s
   H.  Pinard monaural aluminum fetoscope. 12.5 cm.   Circa 1990s.

De Lee Hillis

Foetal Stethoscope
c 1950

Leff Foetal Stethoscope
c 1950

Hi-Fi Fetal Scope

     High fidelity fetal stethoscope, by Milex.  One end for the accoucheur, the other end for the mother to listen for the fetal heart. 

 Compliments of
Kermit Mitchell, M.D.
and Ms Jeanelle Nix, R.N.

De Lee Type Fetoscope
Newport Instrument

Modified version of the 
De Lee- Hillis
Fetal Stethoscope

Compliments of  K. Mitchell,  M.D.

All statements in this web page regarding date, age, and origin are statements of opinion.  All photos and materials on this web page are protected by copyright laws.  Please obtain direct  permission fromF.C. Gapultos, use any and all materials on this site, including photographs and drawings.